The earliest mention of a god like Thor comes from the Germanic god Donar who was also a god of Thunder and represented similar values. Thor is believed to have been the most popular deity of the Norse pantheon. He continues to be a popular god in present day pop culture, especially the Marvel comics and cinematic universe. The modern English and German words for the fifth day of the week, Thursday and Donnerstag both allude to Thor and Donar, “Thor’s Day” and “Donar’s Day” respectively.
Thor is the son of Odin, head of the Norse Pantheon, and one of Odin's partners Jord, who is the personification of the earth. Thor also has a wife, Sif goddess of Wheat, Fertility, and Family. Together they have a son Modi and a daughter Thrud. The marriage between Thor and Sif is referred to as “hierogamy” or divine marriage, which generally takes place between a sky god and an earth goddess.
Associated Aspects: Protection, Honor, Courage, Strength, Justice, Sky, Rain, Agriculture
Appearance: Thor is described as a strong man with long red hair and a great beard. He is most often depicted as leaping into battle against giants or doing battle with dwarves without pausing to consider the alternatives. He is almost always shown with his magical hammer Mjollnir(His Hammer).
Personality: The god is said to be confident and honorable. He often leaps into situations without considering the consequences and can be easily angered. He is absolutely dedicated to protecting his loved ones and performing his duties as the defender of Asgard and Midgard
Animal Associations: Goats
Plant Associations: House-leek, Mistletoe, Oak, Mountain Ash, Hazel
Symbols: Mjolnir, Lightning, The Rune Thurisaz
A Popular Legend.
Thor goes fishing: Thor set out from Asgard to find a big cauldron, enough to brew mead for a massive feast. The feast was being held by the gods for their guests, the friendly giants Aegir and Ran. The only being in all the Nine Worlds with such a big cauldron was the giant Hymir who lived on Midgard or as we know it, Earth.
After just one evening of hosting Thor, who ate two entire bulls! Hymir found that could not feed the gods legendary appetite. The angry giant decided that they would go fishing for their meal the next day.
The two got into a boat and Thor began rowing to Hymir's usual fishing spot, where the giant caught two whales. Without warning, Thor began to row the boat further out from land. Hymir became afraid because the infamous Midgard serpent Jormungand lived in the deeper waters of Earth. Hymir wanted to turn back, but Thor refused. He would not turn down a chance to face Jormungand, his ancient enemy.
Once they were out far enough, Thor cast his line into the water and managed to hook the massive serpent. As he fought to bring his catch up, the planks in the bottom of the boat began to break.
As soon as the serpents head rose above the water, Thor reached for his legendary hammer Mjollnir. Seeing Jormungand, Hymir panicked and cut the fishing line. The serpent disappeared beneath the surface again. In rage, Thor threw Hymir overboard.
With his chance at victory gone and the boat sinking, Thor waded back to land with the two whales over his shoulder. He picked up Hymir’s cauldron, and returned home to Asgard.
Hallowing: The name of Thor was used to hallow words and their intended purpose, for example sealing deals and spoken agreements. For example his name was called upon to hallow weddings. Thor’s hammer was also used to hallow as well as to destroy, in effect, these two properties are interlinked, since any purification generally involves the banishing of hostile forces or elements.
Protection: Thor was called upon for protection during battle and while traveling, especially ocean voyages, and his hammer was worn as a necklace or pendant for protection.
Rain: As Thor is a sky god, he has control over the rains that help crops grow. For this reason, offerings were given to the god and his name was invoked to bring good rainfall for farming.
This is just a short summary of the mythology behind the God, below are some resources for further reading.